After the terrible events of October 7, Israeli society is forever changed. But there are also long-term internal changes that started long before. How does the demographic growth of religious Zionism and the Haredi segment of society influence the future face of Israel? When Theodor Herzl published his Judenstaat in 1896, he suggested to establish a state for all Jews in need, but not a particularly Jewish state. This session will start from Herzl’s writings and contrasts it with the early decades of the State of Israel and with the present-day transformation of Israel.